FIRST MILITARY COUP IN OTTOMAN EMPIRE (30 May 1876)
Mithat Pasha, Huseyin Avni Pasha, Mehmet Redif Pasha and Redif Pasha decided to make a military coup to Sultan Abdulaziz. They called themselves ‘New Ottomans’. What does ‘New Ottomans’ mean? They wanted to change monarchy to constitutional monarchy. They were nationalist and modern. On 30 May 1876 New Ottomans depose Sultan Abdulaziz and sent him to prison. In 4 June 1876 Sultan Abdulaziz died and Cerkes Hasan Pasha thought that Sultan Abdulaziz was killed by New Ottomans and he killed Huseyin Avni pasha and Mehmet Redif Pasha on 15 June 1876. FIRST REPUBLIC OF TURKIYE MILITARY COUP (27 May 1960) Cemal Madanoglu, Alparslan Turkes and some commissioned officers decided to make a military coup to the Democratic Party.
They arrested some Democratic Party members and they judged them and decided to their execution . Adnan Menderes (Prime Minister), Fatin Rustu Zorlu (Foreign Affairs Minister) and Hasan Polatkan(Finance Minister) got the death penalty and died in 16 September (17 September for Adnan Menderes) but in 1990 they get restoration of honor. (İt means they were innocent, all democratic party members, and they were killed unfair.) Cemal Gursel became the fourth president of Turkiye.
BACKGROUND OF 1960 MILITARY COUP
Before the military coup Ismet Inonu said ‘When the conditions are fulfilled, the revolution is a legitimate right for the people.’ The army supported Inonu and he winked to the army for a Military coup.
MILITARY COUP IN 1980( 12 SEPTEMBER 1980)
In 1960 politicians made a very free constitution and people had become polarized (right\Left) and a lot of people were killed between 1960-1980. People fought against each other with guns in streets and the army decided to seize power and make a Military coup on 12 September 1980. Kenan Evren became the seventh president of Turkiye. Kenan Evren made an election to change constitution in 7 November 1982 and the constitution changed. (%91 Yes %9 No for change constitution) EXECUTION IN 1980 MILITARY COUP In the 1980 Military coup, 50 people got execution and if you give an execution a person has to be over 18 years old. But Erdal Eren was executed when he was only 17 years old. It was unlawfulness and merciless.
15 JULY 2016 MILITARY COUP
Actually it’s not a military coup because the army didn’t seize power. Recep Tayyip Erdogan orderd to protest putschists and people followed his order. People saved their president and the putschists failed and were judged and got life sentence