Napoleon Bonoparte (Napoleon I.)

Napoleon bonaparte, the first emperor of French Empire, lead the empire between 1804-1814, he also lead the army of France kingdom. He became one of the most powerful and effective leaders in Europe after his successes in expeditions to Italy and invaded Egypt (Ottoman Empire) but he couldn’t handle it for long.

In 1799 he staged a coup againts the monarchy called The coup d’état of 18 Brumaire and he was declared as the first consul of the republic. In the year 1804, he crowned himself as the first Emperor of France and he consolidated and enlarged his power with it.

He conquered the Europe and combined it. No one had combined Europe after the great Roman Empire until him. He invaded Spain and declared his brother (Joseph Bonaparte) as the king of Spain. After that he walked through to Russia but it was a great mistake for him, because Germans, Austrians and Russians became allies againts French Empire (coalition) and they won the Battle of Leipzig againts the French and The Allies invaded Paris and took Napoleon’s crown and banished him to Elba Island.

In February 1815 he ran away from the island and took the control of the government back. Allies (the 7th coalition) planned a march 5 armies on Napoleon and his army two of them to Belgium as a treat on northern France under command of Duke of Wellington General Arthur Wellesley and Marshal Gebhard Leberecht von Blücher.

The army that deployed in Belgium was almost 225 thousand soldiers and the rest three armies are deployed in Austria. They would attack on Paris and Lyon at the same time. But the armies are late to deployment, just British-Netherland-German forces arrived to Belgium in May (General Wellesley, Marshall von Blücher). Austrians and Prussians are late. When Napoleon learned the problem on coalition side he gathered an army more then 120 thousand men (89.000 infentry, 22.000 horseman).
In 15th june the Northern army passed the Charleroi state and the battle began.

The coalition wasn’t surprised at all. A day before the French army arrived 2 Prussians scout saw a lot of campfires on the border, the Marshal von Blücher deployed his forces at ligny state as a measure to unexpected French attack, but the Duke of Wellington didn’t know the unexpected attack of frenchs so he was about to join to the Duchess of Richmond’s prom. When he heard the Napoleon’s invade to the state charleroi he shouted “God sake, Napoleon lied and trapped me in”. Napoleon Bonaparte attack again and again sauvage attacks because he believed that he has the opportunity to destroy the prussian forces. But the Prussians succeeded to pull their forces back because of wrong connection between french side. Day 16th june end with the good position for the Napoleon s army. Marshal von Blücher injured and Prussians lost seventeen thousand men.

French forces almost 79 thousand men less than the coalition’s. Napoleon deployed his soldiers on his plan the war was tough and bloody for each sides, both sides inflict heavy damage to each. Big part of french army contained horsemans and they were very effective for the battles. But they are not effective like before in this battle because the ground was muddy so English soldiers could move faster and take guard and they killed most of the horsemans because of this at other places war was going bad for French side. 4000 emperor s guard were fighting but suddenly a scream came, run! The guards started running they were been slaughtering by allies at the same time Prussians broke the french’s defensive line in placemoint town and Frenchs totally lost thirty three thousand French soldiers died killed mostly,and twenty four thousand from the coalition side it was a sauvage and bloody war. and after four days from battle Napoleon abdicated from his throne and banished to the middle of the Atlantic Ocean to Saint Helena Island.

Napoleon I. died of stomach cancer in 1821 at the age of 51. His body was cremated and was met with great shock and sadness throughout Europe. On 15 December in 1840, with the witness of one million people, his ashes were buried in Paris, in Les Invalides, where he still resides.


Mustafa Halid Hamarat

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